Red Hat Linux 7.1: The Official Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide
Chapter 11. Managing Files and Directories
If you're new to Linux, you may see files with extensions you don't recognize. A file's extension is the last part of a file's name, after the final dot (in the file sneakers.txt, "txt" is that file's extension).
Here's a brief listing of extensions and their meanings:
.Z a compressed file
.tar an archive file (short for tape archive)
.gz a compressed file (gzipped)
.tgz a tarred and gzipped file
For information on creating zip and tar files, see the section called File Compression and Archiving Gzip, Zip, and Tar
.txt a plain ASCII text file
.html/.htm an HTML file
.ps a PostScript file; formatted for printing
.au an audio file
.wav an audio file
.xpm an image file
.jpg a graphical or image file, such as a photo or artwork
.gif a graphical or image file
.png a graphical or image file
.pdf an electronic image of a document
For information on viewing and creating PDF files, see the section called Viewing PDFs
.rpm a Red Hat Package Manager file
.conf a configuration file
.a an archive file
.lock a "lock" file; determines whether a program is in use
.h a C or C++ program language header file
.c a C program language source code file
.cpp a C++ program language source code file
.o a program object file
.pl a Perl script
.tcl a TCL script
.so a library file
But file extensions are not always used, or used consistently. So what happens when a file doesn't have an extension, or the file doesn't seem to be what the extension says it's supposed to be?
That's when the file command can be helpful.
In the section called Using Redirection in Chapter 10, you created a file called saturday, without an extension. Using the file command, you can tell what the file is by typing:
and you'll see ASCII text, or something similar, telling you it's a text file. Any file that's designated a text file should be readable using cat, more, or less.
Read the Man Page
To learn more about file, read the man page by typing man file.
For more information on helpful commands for reading files, see Chapter 10.
A Larger Picture of the Filesystem
File Compression and Archiving Gzip, Zip, and Tar
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